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Hospitality & Sports Management

This research guide was created to take the guess work out of what you should be using to complete assignments in this field. Course guides have also been added. These will provide research sources available specific to individual course work.

Using Statistical Information

Providing numerical evidence may be useful to support your position. 

Use the guidance from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab. 'This guide is not meant to teach you statistics, but rather how to use statistics more effectively in your writing. This guide is designed to help you understand both how to write using other people's statistics, and how to write using your own statistics. "

Finding Articles

Reviewing Articles and Writing the Annotations

A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journal articles, websites, etc.) that you have consulted in order to write a paper.

An annotated bibliography differs from a standard bibliography. For each source listed you will need to provide descriptive or evaluative comments (i.e., annotations).

To include in your annotations...

Depending on your assignment guidelines, you may have to:

  • Describe the content of the source
  • Mention why the source is useful
  • Indicate any strengths or weaknesses of the source
  • Evaluate the overall reliability of the source; you can do this by looking at:
    • The author's conclusions and how he/she arrived at them
    • The references consulted
  • Describe your reaction to the source

Write an introduction after the bibliography! 

Projects like an annotated bibliography lead you beyond what you knew when you started. Your annotated bibliography will be shaped by what you find and what you've learned, so it make sense to write the Introduction when you know exactly what you've accomplished, and what the final scope and limitations of your resource selection are.

  • Define the topic, and the scope of your bibliography, whether it is meant to cover the whole range of opinion or just one viewpoint or aspect.
  • Describe the scope of your bibliography, i.e. whether it covers what you judge to be the best, or the most recent, or a broad sample of the available material on your topic. Again, does it cover the whole range of opinion, or just one viewpoint or aspect of the topic?

Examples of Annotations

You will be using the standard citation style of your department: APA. Your annotation should appear right after or below the citation. (NOTE: I am unable to provide proper APA format on this webpage. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation).

For example: 

Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2010). The well- and ill-being of youth soccer players. Journal of Sport Psychology, 32(5), 555-579. 

Explained early on in the article, youth sport programs have the ability to have a positive effect on young children both psychologically and emotionally. Emphasis is also put on the fact that involvement in youth sports does not guarantee happiness and confidence in a young individual. Sport participation often leads to a loss of motivation and self-esteem, as well as an increase in injuries. This article is a good representation of the stress that youth sports can put on young children. It sheds light on the idea that youth sports are becoming more of a full time job for young athletes rather than a fun and stress-free pass time. This information comes from a reputable source and is based upon fact due to the extensive list of sources referenced from other books and academic journals. 

Notice that the first few sentences of the annotation discuss its usefulness while the last sentence relates to the reliability of the article. 

Callendar, S. S. (2010). The early specialization of youth in sports. Athletic Training and Sports Helath Care, 2(6), 255-257. 

The author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of early specialization of youth players in sports. She touches upon overuse injuries, burnout, and dropout as negatives of youth players in elite leagues. However, she also addresses the positive experiences and benefit the children have to participating in a physical activity. 

‚ÄčNotice that this entire annotation is descriptive.

Selecting Articles

In today's world of technology, just about anyone can find a wealth of information on just about any topic. The challenge comes in selecting appropriate and reliable sources. Just because a book, article, or website matches the search criteria and seems to be relevant, does not mean it is an appropriate or reliable source of information. Given that all sources are not created equal, learning to analyze and evaluate critically is an important part of the research process. 

Although subtle differences are involved when evaluating different types of sources, there are basic questions to be considered with all. 

  • Is it a credible source? Is the source trustworthy? What are the author's credentials? 
  • How current, or recent, is the information? Is it still valid? 
  • How reasonable is it? Does examine the subject fairly? Is there bias? Does it contain alternative points of view? 
  • What information does it use as support? Does the author use references? 

Annotated Bibliography Checklist

  • Have you provided a title which informs the reader exactly what the annotated bibliography is about?
  • Have you given a short introduction and explained why you have selected the articles?
  • Have you provided full publication details of each article?
  • Have you summarized the aims of each research report?
  • Have you summarized the conclusion of each research report?
  • Have you evaluated each article in terms of its relevance to the topic?
  • Have you checked your spelling and grammar?